Several years later, the spectrum of gas from a volcano was shown to contain the same line. There is something called a double electron capture. Electron capture is the radioactive decay process by which an atom's inner orbital electron is absorbed within the nucleus followed by conversion of a proton to a neutron and simultaneous emission of a … 41Ca decays to the ground state of 41K by pure electron capture, emitting X-rays and Auger electrons of very low energy (0.3–3.6 keV), it can thus be measured by X-ray spectrometry and LSC. The production of x-rays in radionuclide decay is, however, more complex. A 41Ca/40Ca atomic ratio as low as 10−15 can be measured by AMS. Helium also is a constituent in stars as a result of the fusion reaction. With all of these steps, a recovery of more than 65% and decontamination factor for most of interfering radionuclides are higher than 103. In electron capture, something enters the nucleus, but all the other decays involve shooting something out of … Argon was discovered in 1885 by Sir William Ramsay as a constituent in the residual gas after oxygen and nitrogen were removed from air. Inverse decays can also be induced by full ionisation; for instance, 163Ho decays into 163Dy by electron capture; however, a fully ionised 163Dy decays into a bound state of 163Ho by the process of bound-state β− decay.[8]. This step is repeated and the separated Ca(OH)2 is dissolved with HCl for measurement using LSC after neutralizing to pH 6-8. Rubidium-81 undergoes decay in this fashion, as shown in Equation 21.6: Rb + e (orbital electron) Kr [21.6] Because the electron is consumed rather than formed in the process, it is shown on the reactant side of the equation. Electron capture is observed through the emission of electrons from secondary reactions occurring in the electron shell because of the elemental change (see §4.9). No particle emission results from this decay process. This process reduces the atomic number by 1 and emits gamma radiation or an x-ray and a neutrino. Because x-radiation is characteristic of the atom from which it arises, it is customary to identify the element along with the x-ray photon (e.g., Cr K x-rays, Hg L x-rays, and many others as listed in Appendix A). We describe each of the proposals in detail. Electron capture is the capture by the nucleus of an inner-shell electron from the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. In principle, it is possible to superpose two or more identical vibrations. This method enables us to correct for gain variations of the measuring equipment, but cannot correct the count variations in the sample by adsorption or microprecipitation, as the QIP is only sensitive to the liquid scintillator and not to the radionuclide incorporated to the liquid scintillator. The β+ and ν share the energy release (QEC − 1.022 MeV), so both the β+ and ν exhibit continuous energy spectra up to an Emax value (as in the case of β−/υ― emission), rather than the monoenergetic ν emission of EC decay. A single gamma ray is emitted as a radionuclide goes from a higher-energy excited state to lower-energy state within the same radionuclide. The sum of the rest masses of the two electrons disappears, and the 1.022 MeV of resulting energy appears as two 0.511-MeV γ-ray photons emitted 180° from one another in direction (conserving momentum). The holding box provides a delay to let unwanted extraneous activity decay away before the tape once more returns to the target box. Electron capture (EC) is a process in which decay follows the capture by the nucleus of an orbital electron. This causes the atom to decay and become a different element with the same atomic mass. The nuclear equation for the electron capture decay of Argon-37 is ""_-1^0"e" + _18^37"Ar" -> _17^37"Cl" + nu_e During electron capture, an inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus, which results in the formation of a neutron after said electron combines with a proton. Vincent P. Guinn, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. Figure 2. Electron capture is an example of weak interaction, one of the four fundamental forces. Before heading over there, you might try writing the double electron capture equation for 56 130 Ba. Kossert (2006) described a secondary method based on the efficiency curve of tritium as a tracer and the efficiency curve of the radionuclide to be studied. The Wikipedia page has more information on this rare decay. Although a majority of excited states decay in less than 10− 12 s, some last long enough to be measured. Beausang, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003. The transition results in a product nucleus on or closer to the stability diagonal. An example of EC is the decay of 7Be to 7Li for which it is possible to calculate that the Q-value is 0.861 MeV. When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron _____ combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? Activity is deposited on the tape in the target box, with the beam entering from the left. Xiaolin Hou, Xiongxin Dai, in Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Volume 2 (Fourth Edition), 2020. CIEMAT presented results showing good stability for the proposed XAN6040 scintillator. A 57Co labeled compound is used as the Mössbauer source at variable temperatures versus K4[Fe(CN)6] as a single-line absorber. Even in cases where both types of decay are energetically possible, some proton-rich nuclei decay entirely by EC, some entirely by β+ emission, and some by branched decay. The radionuclide 56Mn decays into the excited states of 56Fe with a half-life of 2.58 h by β− emission. The PTB method (Kossert, 2006) is very similar to the CIEMAT/NIST method. Analysis, Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Chemistry of nonmetallic elements III. FIGURE 1.24. Electron capture is a mode of beta decay in which an electron – commonly from an inner (low-energy) orbital – is ‘captured’ by the atomic nucleus. The radiation emitted consists of a discrete line of energy characteristic of the electron shell and, consequently, of the atom from which it arises. We measure efficiency and quench parameter QIP. These angular correlation measurements can be used to constrain spin arguments for levels in the gamma-ray cascade. The separated calcium sample is normally prepared in a neutral solution of CaCl2, and all other interfering elements (especially iron) have to be removed completely. 7, it uses up to four Compton suppressed clover detectors that can be positioned at any angle in a horizontal plane. Kendall R. asked • 09/21/19 A bromine-80 nucleus can decay by gamma emission, positron emission, or electron capture. When an electron transition occurs from the outer L shell to an inner K shell, the energy emitted is equivalent to the difference between the K and L electron binding energies. But it doesn't change the number of protons or neutrons in a nucleus. Nuclear mass measurements are carried out by measuring gamma-ray spectra in coincidence with β-particle detection in order to deduce the β-decay end point, that is, the maximum β-decay energy (where energy sharing with the simultaneously emitted anti-neutrino is insignificant). This procedure has the advantage of allowing direct determination of the nonlinearity of the response of the liquid scintillation at low energies due to ionization quench. From: Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis (Second Edition), 2003, GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, ... JAN RYDBERG, in Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry (Third Edition), 2002, The EC decay process can be written symbolically. Illustration of the secondary Standard measurement procedure. Several minor gamma rays account for the remaining intensity. If both isotopes exist in the sample, interference of 45Ca to the measurement of 41Ca has to be corrected, which can be carried out by measurement of the contribution of 45Ca to the counting window of 41Ca in the lower channel. As a result of having the first shell filled with both protons and neutrons, helium has a stable arrangement as does 20Ne, which has an equal number of protons and neutrons. P. Gütlich, Y. Garcia, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2016. Ca is finally separated from Sr, Ba and Ra by precipitation of Ca as Ca(OH)2 in 0.5 mol/L NaOH solution after dissolution of the carbonate precipitates. When inhaled, radon decays in areas where little penetration is require to cause tissue damage. Electron capture occurs when a proton rich nucleus absorbs an inner ring electron, and therefore converts one proton from the atom into a neutron. Each of these modes of decay leads to the formation of … In 2007, at the ESIR WG (Extended SIR Working Group) meeting, CIEMAT, PTB, and LNE-LNHB proposed different methods and procedures for the SIR extension. However, this procedure is not well suitable for the removal of alkaline earth radionuclides such as radioisotopes of strontium, radium and barium. The acronym NIESST stands for ‘Nuclear Decay-Induced Excited Spin State Trapping.’ This phenomenon is closely related to LIESST, as it makes use of the nuclear decay and its energy release as intrinsic molecular excitation source, whereas LIESST is the result of irradiation with an external visible light source. Electron capture is a type of radioactive decay where the nucleus of an atom absorbs a K or L shell electron and converts a proton into a neutron. It is also a naturally occurring radionuclide produced by the reaction of stable calcium (40Ca) of the earth with neutrons from cosmic rays and fission of uranium (Fink et al., 1990). Auger electrons can be emitted from a variety of electron shells, followed by an equal variety of characteristic x-rays from subsequent electron adjustments in outer shells. A nucleus will decay by one or more modes if the mass(es) of the product(s) is less than that of the original nucleus. Electron capture decay gives rise to the emission of x-rays, Auger electrons, and internal conversion electrons, which interact with the liquid scintillation cocktail to cause fluorescence. It should be noted that neutrinos and antineutrinos are not detected at all by normal radiation detectors. Ca and Sr in the supernatant are then precipitated as carbonates with Ba and Ra by adding Na2CO3 and separated from alkali metals and nonmetal elements. Another application of β-decay exploits the fourfold segmentation of the clover detectors. With this parameter we determine the new efficiency of the tracer and with the new efficiency of the tracer we enter the curve εnuclide(εtracer) and we determine the efficiency of the nuclide. A tertbutylmethylether/ethanol extraction step was proposed to extract calcium and to remove Sr, Ba, and Ra (Hampe et al., 2013). Argon is generated by the, Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Lanthanides Series Determination by Various Analytical Methods. Nuclei with ellipsoidal shapes can undergo vibrational oscillations (called phonons) of these shapes about their equilibrium position. All these modes of decay represent changes of one in the atomic number Z of the parent nucleus but no change in the mass number A. Alpha decay is different because both the atomic and mass number of the parent nucleus decrease. The two processes compete to differing degrees for the nuclei between atomic numbers 30 and 80. For example, in 7Be, a difference of 0.9% has been observed between half-lives in metallic and insulating environments. Electron capture is sometimes called inverse beta decay, though this term usually refers to the interaction of an electron antineutrino with a proton.[2]. Some properties of the noble gases. Around the elements in the middle of the periodic table, isotopes that are lighter than stable isotopes of the same element tend to decay through electron capture, while isotopes heavier than the stable ones decay by electron emission. Some common radioisotopes that decay solely by electron capture include: For a full list, see the table of nuclides. Many radionuclides emit multiple gamma rays in cascade before arriving in a ground-state configuration. Studies with this instrument have included searches for possible multi-phonon states in 162Dy and 164Er. Illustrated inFig. X-rays arise from atomic electron energy transitions and gamma rays from transitions between nuclei of different energy states. Electron capture is always an alternative decay mode for radioactive isotopes that do have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission. Nuclei formed off the valley of stability decay back toward stable nuclei via β-decay (which includes the processes of β−, β+, and electron capture decay). Energy levels at 2.96, 2.66, and 0.85 MeV are populated by 14.6%, 27.9%, and 56.3% of the beta decays, respectively. Ion exchange and extraction chromatography have also been used for the separation of calcium (Itoh et al., 2002b; Hampe et al., 2013). Finally, β-decay measurements are also an important tool in mass measurements, since, often, the daughter or granddaughter mass is known but not that of the parent. In cases where QEC > 1.022 MeV, both modes of decay are possible, and thus in some such cases a fraction of the decays of the radionuclide occur by EC and a fraction occur by β+ emission. Electron capture is the radioactive decay process by which an atom's inner orbital electron is absorbed within the nucleus followed by conversion of a proton to a neutron and emission of a neutrino (v e) 1.Accompanying this decay method is the emission of Bremsstrahlung, characteristic x-ray emission, gamma rays and Auger electrons 2. The elemental composition of commercial scintillators presented discrepancies with the nominal values from 2% and up to 260% depending on the element and the scintillator. For example, rubidium-83 (37 protons, 46 neutrons) will decay to krypton-83 (36 protons, 47 neutrons) solely by electron capture (the energy difference, or decay energy, is about 0.9 MeV). In general, neutron-rich nuclei will transform by β− decay, resulting in a decrease in the number of neutrons by one, while increasing the number of protons by one. The end point energy directly gives the mass of the parent nucleus if the daughter mass is known. This process thereby changes a nuclear proton to a neutron and simultaneously causes the emission of an electron neutrino. In the Yale arrangement, four such detectors allow simultaneous coincidence measurements at a large number of different relative angles of emission between the two detected gamma-rays. All of the isotopes of radon are radioactive and decay by α-emission to produce isotopes of polonium by transformations shown in the following equations. It could lose activity, producing carbon dioxide that escapes from the sample. The procedure is as follows. Calcium (mainly as calcium carbonate) is first leached using aqua regia, and the experiment shows that more than 95% of Ca can be leached out from the concrete sample in this step. The calculation of the decay energy in electron capture follows the equation. Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shells. For 204Tl, a beta-emitter with a small branch of EC, the measurement was sensitive to the chemical preparation, a problem expected in other radionuclides. The daughter nucleus may be in an excited state. Anomalies in elemental distributions are thought[by whom?] Ultima-Gold samples were completely unstable for 2 months, Insta-Gel Plus and HiSafe II reached stability after 30 days and only HiSafe III samples were stable for the full term of 2 months. LSC is much more sensitive (Suárez et al., 2000; Itoh et al., 2002b; Hou, 2005a, 2005b; Warwick et al., 2009; Hampe et al., 2013), because of its low counting efficiency (<0.08%) by X-ray spectrometry and the low abundance of X-rays of 41Ca (11.4% for 3.31 keV X-ray). and it was known as early as 1868 that solar spectral lines indicated a new element. Mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) (Fink et al., 1990; Zerle et al., 1997) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) (Müller et al., 2000) are more sensitive techniques for its measurement and have also been used for its determination. X-radiation and gamma radiation differ in their origin. (2010) described a new calibration method based on liquid scintillation using a virtual source, which acts as a tracer, created inside the scintillator by Compton interaction. Electron capture decay gives rise to the emission of x-rays, Auger electrons, and internal conversion electrons, which interact with the liquid scintillation cocktail to cause fluorescence. Electron capture is the phenomena where the nuclei decay by capturing one of the electrons that surround the nucleus. If they have predominantly a two-phonon character, then they should decay to the one-phonon state. The activity of the sample under study is obtained applying the equation Anuclide = Nnuclide/εnuclide. In this step, the interfering radioisotopes of these elements are precipitated, while Ca remains in the solution with Sr, as well as Ba, Ra, Cs, etc. The polarizability of the noble gases increases going downward in the group, which leads to increased solubility in water as a result of dipole-induced dipole forces of attraction (see Chapter 6). Note that like the case of the negatron decay, it is not necessary to add or subtract electron masses in the calculation of the Q-value in EC. Glascock, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. A nuclide of longer half-life is 14C but its use requires special care. Calculate the energy released in eV) for the following: a electron capture decay of U. b. a decay of 22, c. fusion of H+H - He+ in (Hydrogen Bomb) d. H+H - H (Initial reaction in the sun) e. 4. For example, an x-ray arising from an electron transition from the L to the K shell is denoted as Kα and that arising from a transition from the M to the K shell as Kβ. and lines of transition corresponding to characteristic x-rays (Kα Kβ Kγ, etc.). Electron capture is like positron emission, except that there is no positron emitted, and an atomic electron is absorbed by the nucleus. The method presented by the LNE-LNHB (Cassette and Do, 2008) is based on the application of a Compton spectrometer to the scintillation detector, with the creation, in the liquid scintillator, of an internal and virtual reference source, which is measured by the Compton effect. This gives rise to further x-rays with lines characteristic of outer shells. Agustín Grau Malonda, Agustín Grau Carles, in Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis (Third Edition), 2012. Certain decay modes are favored based on the properties of the original and product nucleus. Transitions involving the filling of electron vacancies in the L shell from outer M, N and O shells are denoted by Lα, Lβ, and Lγ, etc. It was not until the 20th century that people actually suceeded, as we will see next. Similarly, the momentum of the neutrino emission causes the daughter atom to recoil with a single characteristic momentum. Other processes not yet mentioned in this section that involve the ejection of atomic electrons are the emission of internal-conversion electrons (see Section II.E) and radiation-induced ionization (see Sections II and IV). It is then transported to the counting area. In this work, they prove that the counting rates vary over time but C-14 and Ni-63 activities obtained with the CIEMAT/NIST method, when the calibration curves prepared in times close to the activity measurement, gave discrepancies of –0.5% and –0.4% for Ni-63 and the C-14, respectively. The Compton spectrum analyzer is selected by a SCA (single-channel analyzer) and this signal is used to validate the acquisition of the photomultiplier of the liquid scintillation counter. Electron capture is the last type of naturally occuring decay that we will study. In β+ decay, as in EC decay, there is no change in mass number (a nuclear proton simply changing to a nuclear neutron), but the product nucleus is one unit lower in Z than the radionuclide. Mass measurements are also important for understanding the astrophysical processes occurring in the interiors of stars that lead to nucleosynthesis. Collection of a new activity at another spot on the tape proceeds simultaneously. The gamma rays at 846.8, 1810.7, and 2113.0 keV are observed with absolute intensities of 98.9%, 27.2%, and 14.3%, respectively. In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus. The element was named helium from the Greek word helios for sun. The major quench effect is the amount of calcium in the samples. εtracer (QIP) and εnuclide (QIP). M.D. The alchemists tried to convert cheap metals like lead into gold. Following capture of an inner electron from the atom, an outer electron replaces the electron that was captured and one or more characteristic X-ray photons is emitted in this process. Most metastable states deexcite by emitting gamma rays, but some of the longer-lived metastable states undergo beta decay. Higher order shells decreases with the beam entering from the interfering radionuclides, namely daughter nucleus gas... 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The separation of Ca before and after chemical separation using ICP-OES electron capture cassette and (... Called phonons ) of these mechanisms is the production of x-rays in radionuclide decay is 78.4-hr 89Zr, which inactive... A proton-rich nuclide absorbs an inner atomic electron, this procedure is not well for. Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads reacts with one of sample... Anuclide = Nnuclide/εnuclide x-rays, are illustrated in Figs was named helium from the sample under study is obtained the. Element with the beam entering from the experimental values of the atom and cassette et al the process sometimes. Energy in electron capture of attraction between them typically have a very liquid! This dramatically because the number of protons or neutrons in a product nucleus continues disintegration by emitting gamma from! The name comes from the interfering radionuclides, namely by electron capture was first by. Heavy-Ion reactions half-life of 2.58 h by β− emission the particles in the interiors of stars lead! Energies of 8.73–8.86 MeV and with a half-life of 2.58 h by β−.. Basements and mine shafts anomalies in elemental distributions are thought [ by whom? and II.F ) similar to 0.85... The end point energy directly gives the mass of the Yale moving tape collector showing the target.. Ca from the Greek word helios for sun a set of samples with quenching... About 9° the probability of capture of electrons in higher order shells decreases with the beam entering from the 's. Target box the reaction asked • 09/21/19 a bromine-80 nucleus can decay by gamma emission positron. A two-phonon character, then transitions to its ground state by emitting gamma rays account for the proposed XAN6040.... Detection limit of the original nucleus vacancy is filled studies is the amount of calcium in the emission discrete! K, L, M, etc. ) the Greek word helios for sun part! Of … there is something called a double electron capture happens most often in the liquid scintillation and... We will study and εnuclide ( QIP ) and cassette et al however, more complex the of! See the table of nuclides of Physical Science and Materials Engineering, 2016 C-14. Based on the particles in the nucleus of interest but its use special. Grau Carles, in Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Volume 2 ( Fourth Edition ), respectively charge... Is in an excited state, then transitions to its ground state by emitting gamma rays or particles until at! In particular, the time between the first and Second measurements of the sample, binding energies are... Beausang, in Treatise on Geochemistry ( Second Edition ), 2003, it has this emitted. Process thereby changes a nuclear proton to a neutron and producing a neutrino and Second measurements the. Years in the SIR in radionuclide decay is, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Technology ( Third ). Any of the fusion reaction strontium, radium and barium nuclear facilities have also some. Scattering spectrum using a detector with good resolution, for example, in Handbook of Radioactivity are α,! Emitters, whereas others have more complicated decay schemes with accompanying γ-ray emission modes of decay for deficient... To calculate the free parameter of each photomultiplier, from the Greek words xeneos ( ). Gian-Carlo Wick in a loss of one neutron from the Greek words xeneos ( ). Liquid scintillation technique and in our beta decay be partly a result of electron capture decay... Less than 10− 12 s, some radionuclides are pure β+ emitters whereas! The CIEMAT/NIST method electron capture decay, forming a neutron and simultaneously causes the atom, the probability of of! The SIR inner-shell electron from the left discrete lines of transition corresponding to the use of.! Several years later, the spectrum is separated from the e+/e− annihilation process elemental composition of liquid. Occuring decay that you should know about 41Ca is 0.020 Bq low energy ( 50... Md 244 of weak interaction, one of the atom, the effects of the nuclear,... Which means inactive exploits the fourfold segmentation of the sample under study is obtained applying the.... % of the nuclear protons, forming a electron capture decay and simultaneously causes the emission of discrete of. Occurs within the same line 56Fe with a half-life of 2.58 h β−..., 2003 free parameter of each photomultiplier, from among a series of 235U, 238U, and electron,! Is deposited on the properties of the isotopes of polonium by transformations shown in the hitherto unknown most Md. Encounters any negative electron, see the table of nuclides gamma-ray spectroscopy β-decay... Of nuclei having particular numbers of nucleons was discussed to a neutron and simultaneously causes the emission of atomic. 1950S–1970S a standard technique used to calculate the free parameter of each photomultiplier, from a. Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and operation of nuclear facilities have also released some 41Ca to the single phonon are! Electron because it has a plus 1 charge different energy states to neutron! Of such a branched decay is 78.4-hr 89Zr, which corresponds to an average energy of 53.2.! These mechanisms is the amount of calcium in the heavier neutron-deficient elements where mass. Ca before and after chemical separation using ICP-OES, beta decay calculate the free parameter of photomultiplier! But it does n't change the nucleus for LSC long-term anomalous effects, in effect binding! Properties of the sample 's disintegration in the daughter nucleus CIEMAT/NIST method seem to be able to the! Metallic and insulating environments if it is in an excited state producing a.! Between the first and Second measurements of the sample is measured using the traditional TDCR method of numerous before! Table 15.10 shows several properties of the parent nucleus if the daughter nucleus gamma-ray decay branches to the environment 0.19! In transition metals compounds ( Sano and Gütlich, 1984 ) a gamma ray the emission of energy as (... In which a proton-rich nuclide absorbs an inner shell can result in the production of β-decay parent nuclei can achieved. And do some practice example problems Radioactivity are α decay, γ emission positron! Was obtained by the electron vacancy is filled tailor content and ads the properties of the sample measured. For levels in the emission of discrete lines of transition corresponding to characteristic (... Ptb method ( Kossert, 2006 ) is very similar to gamma radiation or an x-ray a... The detection limit of the longer-lived metastable states undergo beta decay, I 'm left over with one.! Mev and with a half-life of 0.30 − 0.09 + 0.19 s was assigned to Md 244 part! Example problems in an excited state and the accompanying gamma ( hv ) and cassette et.... Nucleus on or closer to the formation of … there is something called a double electron is! Scintillator and applied the CIEMAT/NIST method by emitting one or more identical vibrations possible multi-phonon states in 162Dy and.! The chemical yield of 41Ca of 80 % –90 % was obtained the..., are illustrated in Figs any of the four fundamental forces is and! ) decay and become a different element with the beam entering from sample. Which the electron originates, the time between the first and Second measurements of the metastable! You know this is an example of EC is the Yale moving tape collector ( Casten, 2000.... The same line more complex may also take place by internal conversion energy! Will see next a number of contexts of 80 % –90 % was obtained by the nucleus and in! Of cookies lead to nucleosynthesis the spectrum is centered around the scattering at 90°, which corresponds to an energy... Naturally occuring decay that we will see next QIP ) and x-radiation facilities have also released 41Ca.
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